TED技术:Siamak Hariri:如何建造一个神圣的地方?

发表时间:2018-09-05内容来源:VOA英语学习网

TED技术:Siamak Hariri: How do you build a sacred space?

The school of architecturethat I studied at some 30 years agohappened to be across the streetfrom the wonderful art gallerydesigned by the greatarchitect Louis Kahn.I love the building,and I used to visit it quite often.One day,I saw the security guard run his handacross the concrete wall.And it was the way he did it,the expression on his face —something touched me.I could see that the security guardwas moved by the buildingand that architecture has that capacityto move you.I could see it, and I remember thinking,"Wow. How does architecture do that?"

At school, I was learning to design,but here — here wasa reaction of the heart.And it touched me to the core.

You know, you aspire for beauty,for sensuousness, for atmosphere,the emotional response.That's the realm of the ineffableand the immeasurable.And that's what you live for:a chance to try.

So in 2003, there wasan open call for designsfor the Bahá'í Temple for South America.This was the first templein all of South America.It's a continental temple,a hugely important milestonefor the Bahá'í community,because this would be the lastof the continental templesand would open the doorfor national and local temples to be builtaround the world.

And the brief was deceptively simpleand unique in the annals of religion:a circular room, nine sides,nine entrances, nine paths,allowing you to come to the templefrom all directions,nine symbolizing completeness,perfection.No pulpit, no sermons,as there are no clergyin the Bahá'í faith.And in a world which is putting up walls,the design needed to express in formthe very opposite.It had to be open, welcomingto people of all faiths,walks of life, backgrounds,or no faith at all;a new form of sacred spacewith no patternor models to draw from.It was like designing one of the firstchurches for Christianityor one of the first mosques for Islam.

So we live in a secular world.How do you design sacred space today?And how do you even definewhat's sacred today?

I stumbled across this beautiful quotefrom the Bahá'í writings,and it speaks to prayer.It says that if you reach out in prayer,and if your prayer is answered —which is already very interesting —that the pillars of your heartwill become ashine.

And I loved this ideaof the inner and the outer,like when you see someoneand you say, "That person is radiant."And I was thinking, "My gosh,how could we make somethingarchitectural out of that,where you create a buildingand it becomes alive with light?Like alabaster, if you kiss it with light,it becomes alive.And I drew this sketch,something with two layers, translucentwith structure in between capturing light.Maybe a pure form,a single form of emanationthat you could imaginewould be all domeand everything we kept makingwas looking too much like an egg.

(Laughter)

A blob.

So you search.You all know this crazy search,letting the process take you,and you live for the surprises.And I remember quite by accidentI saw this little videoof a plant moving in light,and it made me think of movement,reach,this idea that the templecould have reach,like this reach for the divine.You can imagine alsothat movement within a circlecould mean movement and stillness,like the cosmos,something you see in many places.

(Laughter)

But rotation was not enough,because we needed a form.In the Bahá'í writings, it talks aboutthe temples being as perfectas is humanly possible,and we kept thinking,well, what is perfection?And I remember I stumbled into this imageof this Japanese basketand thinking our Western notionsof perfection need to be challenged,that this wonderful silhouetteof this basket, this wonkiness,and that it has the kind of dimpleof what you might imagine a shoulderor the cheekbone,and that kind of organic form.And so we drew and made models,these lines that merge at the top,soft lines,which became like draperyand translucent veils and folding,and the idea of not onlyfolding but torquing —you remember the plantand the way it was reaching.And this started to becomean interesting form,carving the base, making the entrances.

And then we ended up with this.This is this temple with two layers,nine luminous veils,embodied light,soft-flowing lineslike luminescent drapery.180 submissionswere received from 80 countries,and this was selected.

So we went to the next stageof how to build it.We had submitted alabaster.But alabaster was too soft,and we were experimenting,many experiments with materials,trying to think how we could havethis kind of shimmer,and we ended up with borosilicate.And borosilicate glass,as you know, is very strong,and if you break borosilicate rodsjust so and melt themat just the right temperature,we ended up with this new material,this new cast glass which took usabout two years to make.And it had this quality that we loved,this idea of the embodied light,but on the inside, we wantedsomething with a soft light,like the inner lining of a jacket.On the outside you have protection,but on the inside you touch it.So we found this tiny veinin a huge quarry in Portugalwith this beautiful stone,which the owner had keptfor seven generations in his family,waiting for the right project,if you can believe it.Look at this material, it's beautiful.And the way it lights up;it has that translucent quality.

So here you see the structure.It lets the light through.And looking down,the nine wings are bound,structurally but symbolically strong,a great symbol of unity:pure geometry, a perfect circle,30 meters in section and in plan,perfectly symmetrical,like the idea of sacredness and geometry.And here you see the building going up,2,000 steel nodes,9,000 pieces of steel,7,800 stone pieces,10,000 cast glass pieces,all individual shapes,the entire superstructure all described,engineered, fabricatedwith aerospace technology,prefabricated machine to machine,robotically,a huge team effort, you can imagine,of literally hundreds,and within three percentof our $30 million budgetset in 2006.

(Applause)

Nine wings bound togetherforming a nine-pointed star,and the star shape moving in space,tracking the sun.

So here it is.

Audience: Wow!

(Applause)

Hopefully, a befitting responseto that beautiful quote,"a prayer answered,"open in all directions,capturing the blue light of dawn,tent-like white light of day,the gold light of the afternoon,and of course, at night, the reversal:sensuous,catching the light in all kindsof mysterious ways.

And the site: it's interesting;14 years ago when we made the submission,we showed the templeset against the Andes.We didn't have the Andes as our site,but after nine years, that's exactlywhere we ended up,the lines of the temple set againstnothing but pure nature,and you turn around and you getnothing but the city below you,and inside, a view in all directions,radiating gardensfrom each of the alcoves,radiating paths.

Last October, the opening ceremonies —a beautiful, sacred event,5,000 people from 80 countries,a continuous river of visitors,indigenous peoplefrom all over South America,some who had never left their villages.And of course, that this templebelongs to people,the collective, of many culturesand walks of life,many beliefs,and for me, what's most importantis what it feels like on the inside;that it feel intimate,sacred,and that everyone is welcome.And if even a few who comehave the same reactionas that security guard,then it truly would be their temple.And I would love that.

Thank you.

(Applause)

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