你问我答学英语 第058期:谁属于谁?

发表时间:2017-09-12内容来源:VOA英语学习网

Sahid from Bahrain asks: Can you ever say 'school's principal' or 'bank's manager'?

巴林的Sahid问:你见过这样的用法吗,‘school's principal’或是‘bank's manager’?

Martin Parrott answers: No, but! Normally you wouldn't say 'school's principal' or 'bank's manager' - you'd say school principal and bank manager.

Martin Parrott的回答:不能这么用,但是,通常情况下,你可以这样说‘schooll principal’和‘bank manager’。

Let's have a look at why:

让我们一起来看看这样用的缘由:

In English, we can use nouns to modify other nouns.

在英语里面,我们可以用名词来修饰名词.

So we can say a computer expert - somebody who is an expert, a specialist, in computers, is a computer expert - not a computer's expert!

因此我们可以说‘a computer expert’电脑专家,只能说‘a computer expert’,而不是‘a computer's expert’!

Somebody who's in charge of a company is a company director.

某人负责一家公司,叫做‘a comany director’公司董事长.

A producer who works in radio is a radio producer.

一个从事广播制作方面的人,叫做‘a radio producer’广播制作人.

And in the same way a person who is the manager of a bank is a bank manager, and a principal of a school is a school principal.

同样的道理,银行经理叫做‘a bank manager’,学校校长叫做‘a school principal’。

In some languages you can't do this; but in English, you can just put the two nouns together, and that's what we use.

在某些语种里面,你不能(如同我们上面所说的这样)直接把两个名词放到一块,但是在英语中,你可以,因为我们就是这么做的。

Can we ever say school's principal or bank's manager?

我们可以说同时用‘school's principal’或者‘bank's manager’吗?

Well the answer really is 'no' but very, very occasionally you might want to talk about the fact that the principal of a school doesn't belong to that school – it belongs to this school, to my school, and in that case I might say 'no, no, no, he's not your school's principal, he's my school's principal';

答案是否定的,但是,在非常偶然的情况下,或许你想要阐述这样一个事实:某校长不是A学校的校长,而是B学校的校长,在这种情况下,我们就可以说“,不,不,不,他不是你们学校的校长(your school's principal),而是我校的校长(my school's principal)。

but notice there we're not really talking about his job, we're talking about which school he belongs to.(Common mistake).

但是请注意,这儿我们谈论的不是他的职业,而是他属于哪所学校。(让我们看看可能会遇到的)常见的错误:

The most common mistake that people make with possessives, I think, is to avoid them, and to use 'of'.

为了避免运用所有格时常犯的错误,人们应该不要用所有格,而用Of来代替。

So, instead of saying 'the dog's bone', people say 'the bone of the dog' or 'the woman's husband' is 'the husband of the woman'.

因此,(狗骨头)人们会说‘the bone of the dog’,而不是‘the dog's bone’,还有(这个女人的丈夫)人们会说‘the husband of the woman’,而不是‘the woman's husband’。

Sometimes people say 'the book is for my son', as opposed to saying 'it's my son's book'.

有时人们说‘the book is for my son'(这是我儿子的书),与之相对的是‘it's my son's book’。

It's my son's book!

这是我儿子的书。

Pronunciation is kind of interesting with possessives, because I think often we don't pronounce that 's' sound very clearly and so people often don't hear the possessive 's'.

对于所有格,发音很有意思,人们通常听不出‘possessives’这个词后面的‘s’音,因为我们弱读了它。

One of the problems in learning to use it is that you need to learn to recognise when it's there, because often it's said so quickly that it's easy to miss.

在学习运用所有格的过程中,有一个问题,那就是你要学会‘听’出所有格,捕捉到它,因为通常由于(语速)很快而听不出来。

The other thing that is interesting is that the pronunciation changes, depending on the ending of the word.

还有一件有意思的事,所有格的发音并不是一成不变的,结尾的字母不同,发音也会相应地发生变化。

So if the words ends already in an 's' or a 'sh' sound, or a 'ch' sound, or a 'ge' sound, we have to put an 'es' on the end, so we would say the judge, but the judge's wig, or the church, but the church's congregation.

如果名词是以s,sh,ch,ge结尾,我们会在(读音上发)es(的音,即iz)。那这些单词的所有格就变成了judge's (judge's的念法是judge的读音加上iz)wig;church's 也成了church+iz(注意主持人的发音)。

Plural possessives: what are the rules?

那么复数的所有格有什么规则呢?

The rules are only to do with how they're written down, with the orthography.

其规则只跟书写方式有关。

To really confuse everybody, if it's plural, we put an apostrophe after the 's'.

这可能让大家迷惑不解,(简单地说)如果是复数名词,我们就在‘s’后面加单引号。

So, if we say 'the girls' boyfriends' and we're talking about several girls, we put the apostrophe after the 's' when we write it.

所以,如果我们说‘the girls' boyfriends’,我们的意思是好几个女孩子,在书写的时候,在‘s’后面加单引号。

If we're talking about one girl, 'a girl's homework', we put the apostrophe before the 's'.

如果我们谈论的是一个女孩子,那就是‘a girl's homework’,(这里)在‘s’前面加单引号。

本栏目字幕及文本与音频并不完全对应,还望海涵!

来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.tingvoa.com/html/20170912/493410.html