美国学生历史 第172期:1860年的美国(02)

发表时间:2017-06-19内容来源:VOA英语学习网

In 1850 the admission of California gave the free states a majority of two votes in the Senate. This majority was increased to four by the admission of Minnesota in 1858, and to six by the admission of Oregon in 1859. The control of Congress had slipped forever from the grasp of the slave states.

1850年加利福尼亚的加入使自由州的席位比蓄奴州多两个。1858年这个多数优势因为明尼苏达加入联邦而扩大到四个席位,1859年这个优势则因俄勒冈的加入而上升到六个席位,对于国会的控制权现在已经滑落到自由州的掌握之中。

363. The Cities.

363.城市

The tremendous increase in manufacturing, in farming, and in trading brought about a great increase in foreign commerce. This in turn led to the building up of great cities in the North and the West. These were New York and Chicago; and they grew rapidly because they formed the two ends of the line of communication between the East and the West by the Mohawk Valley. New York now contained over eight hundred thousand inhabitants. It had more people within its limits than lived in the whole state of South Carolina. The most rapid growth was seen in the case of Chicago. In 1840 there were only five thousand people in that city; it now contained one hundred and nine thousand inhabitants. Cincinnati and St. Louis, each with one hundred and sixty thousand, were still the largest cities of the West, and St. Louis was the largest city in any slave state. New Orleans, with nearly as many people as St. Louis, was the only large city in the South.

制造业、农业及商业的巨大发展带来国外贸易大幅增长,这进而导致北方和西部大型城市的建设,这些城市包括纽约和芝加哥,它们获得快速发展是因为摩霍克峡谷将东西部的交通连接起来,而纽约和芝加哥位于这个交通线的两端。此时的纽约有80多万人口,纽约州的居民比整个南卡罗莱纳州的人还要多。最快的增长是在芝加哥,1840年这座城市只有5000人,现在则有10.9万人。辛辛那提和圣路易斯分别都有16万人,它们仍然是西部最大的城市,而圣路易斯是所有蓄奴州中最大的城市;新奥尔良几乎与圣路易斯的人口一样多,它是南方唯一的大城市。

来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.tingvoa.com/html/20170619/467312.html