BBC英语六分钟 第52期:人工智能可怕吗?

发表时间:2017-04-30内容来源:VOA英语学习网

Rob:Hello, I'm Rob. Welcome to 6 Minute English and with me in the studio is Neil.

大家好我是罗伯,欢迎收听英语六分钟,今天我的搭档是尼尔。

Neil:Hello, Rob.

你好,罗伯。

Rob:Hello. Feeling bright today, Neil?

你好。感觉今天头脑灵光吗,尼尔?

Neil:I am feeling quite bright and clever, yes!

是的,我感觉今天我非常聪明!

Rob:That’s good to hear. Well, you’ll need all your wits about you – meaning you’ll need to think very quickly in this programme because we’re talking about intelligence, or to be more accurate, Artificial Intelligence. And we’ll learn some vocabulary related to the topic so that you can have your own discussion about it. Now, Neil, you know who Professor Stephen Hawking is, right?

那很好。今天的节目中你需要保持头脑清醒,也就是需要你反应相当迅速,因为今天我们要讨论的是智能,更准确来说是人工智能。我们还会学习一些词汇以便以后你自己讨论这个话题时使用。尼尔,你知道史蒂芬·霍金教授是谁对吧?

Neil:Well, of course! Yes. Many people say that he’s a genius – in other words, he is very, very intelligent. Professor Hawking is one of the most famous scientists in the world and people remember him for his brilliance and also because he communicates using a synthetic voice generated by a computer – synthetic means it’s made from something non-natural. Artificial is similar in meaning – we use it when something is man-made to look or behave like something natural.

当然!我知道。很多人说他是个天才,换句话说就是他非常非常聪明。霍金教授是世界最著名的科学家之一。人们记住他的一个原因是他的聪明才智,还有一个原因就是它是通过电脑合成的声音来与他人沟通的。合成的意思是通过非天然的方式形成的。与人工的意思类似,用来表示看起来或者行动起来像是天然生成的而实际上是人造的事物。

Rob:Well, Professor Hawking has said recently that efforts to create thinking machines are a threat to our existence. A threat means something which can put us in danger. Now, can you imagine that, Neil?!

霍金教授最近表示人们试图创造具有思维能力的机器对我们自身的存在会构成威胁。威胁是指某事物可以令我们陷入危险的处境。你可以想象吗,尼尔?!

Neil:Well, there’s no denying that good things can come from the creation of Artificial Intelligence. Computers which can think for themselves might be able to find solutions to problems we haven’t been able to solve. But technology is developing quickly and maybe we should consider the consequences. Some of these very clever robots are already surpassing us, Rob. To surpass means to have abilities superior to our own.

无可否认人工智能的诞生给我们带来了很多好的事物。可以自行思考的计算机可能会找到人类无法解决问题的答案。但是科技在高速发展,或许我们应该考虑一下后果。这些相当聪明的机器人当中有一些已经超越了我们,罗伯。超越就是它们拥有比我们强的能力。

Rob:Yes. Maybe you can remember the headlines when a supercomputer defeated the World Chess Champion Gary Kasparov, to everybody’s astonishment. It was in 1997. What was the computer called, Neil? Was it: a)Red Menace b) Deep Blue c) Silver Surfer?

是的。或许你还记得超级计算机打败世界象棋冠军加里·卡斯帕罗夫的头条新闻,当时大家都被惊呆了。当时是1997年。那台电脑叫什么?是a)红色威胁b)深蓝 还是c)银色冲浪者?

Neil:I don’t know. I think (c) is probably not right. I think Deep Blue. That’s (b) Deep Blue.

我不知道。我想c)可能不对。我选b)深蓝。

Rob:Okay. You’ll know if you got it right at the end of the programme. Well, our theme is Artificial Intelligence and when we talk about this we have to mention the movies.

好的。在节目最后你会知道你是不是选对了。我们的主题是人工智能,说到人工智能不得不提电影。

Neil:Many science fiction movies have explored the idea of bad computers who want to harm us. One example is 2001: A Space Odyssey.

很多科幻电影中已经出现过坏电脑企图伤害我们的情节。一个例子就是《2001太空漫游》。

Rob:Yes, a good film. And another is The Terminator, a movie in which actor Arnold Schwarzenegger played an android from the future. An android is a robot that looks like a human. Have you watched that one, Neil?

是啊,一部好电影。另一部是《终结者》,阿诺德·斯瓦辛格在影片中饰演了一个未来的人形机器人。人形机器人就是长得像人的机器人。你看过哪部电影吗,尼尔?

Neil:Yes, I have. And the android is not very friendly.

是的,我看过。那个人形机器人并不是很友好。

Rob:No, it’s not. In many movies and books about robots that think, the robots end up rebelling against their creators. But some experts say the risk posed by Artificial Intelligence is not that computers attack us because they hate us. Their problem is related to their efficiency.

是的。在很多关于会思考的机器人的电影或者书中,这些机器人最后开始反抗他们的创造者。但是一些专家称人工智能给我们带来的风险并不是电脑会因为憎恨我们而攻击我们。它们的问题与它们的工作效率有关。

Neil:What do you mean?

什么意思?

Rob:Well, let’s listen to what philosopher Nick Bostrom has to say. He is the founder of the Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University. He uses three words when describing what’s inside the mind of a thinking computer. This phrase means ‘to meet their objectives’. What’s the phrase he uses?

让我们听听哲学家尼克·博斯特罗姆是如何说的。他是牛津大学人类未来研究所的创办者,他在描述会思考的电脑的内心活动时用到了三个词。这个短语的意思是“实现它们的目标”。这个短语是什么?

The bulk of the risk is not in machines being evil or hating humans but rather that they are indifferent to humans and that in pursuit of their own goals we humans would suffer as a side effect. Suppose you had a super intelligent AI whose only goal was to make as many paperclips as possible. Human bodies consist of atoms and those atoms could be used to make a lot of really nice paperclips. If you want paperclips it turns out that in the pursuit of this you would have instrumental reasons to do things that would be horrible to humanity.

最大的危险不是机器具有邪恶的本性或者憎恨人类,而是它们对人类一视同仁,而在它们追求自身的目标时我们人类可能会因为它们这样做产生的副作用而受苦。设想你有一个无比聪明的人工智能机器人,它的唯一目标就是制造尽可能多地回纹针。而恰好人类身体中的原子能够制造出非常好的回纹针。如果你想要回纹针,结果在你的机器人追求这一结果的过程中你就会被它们当作一种工具使用,这对人类来说真是太可怕了。

Neil:A world in which humans become paperclips — wow, that’s scary! But the phrase which means ‘meet their objectives’ is to ‘pursue their goals’.

喔,一个把人类变成回纹针的世界,太可怕了!但是那个短语是“实现他们的目标”,也就是“追求目标”。

Rob:Yes, it is. So the academic explains that if you’re a computer responsible for producing paperclips, you will pursue your objective at any cost…

是的,是很可怕。所以这位学者解释说,如果你是一台负责生产回纹针的电脑,你会不惜任何代价实现这个目标……

Neil:… and even use atoms from human bodies to turn them into paperclips! Now that’s a horror story, Rob. If Stephen Hawking is worried, I think I might be too. How can we be sure that Artificial Intelligence – be it either a device or software – will have a moral compass?

甚至使用人体内的原子,将人类变为回纹针!这是个惊悚的故事,罗伯。如果史蒂芬·霍金担心了,我认为我或许也应该担心。我们怎样才能保证人工智能——无论是设备还是软件——受到道德标准的约束呢?

Rob:Ah, a good expression — a moral compass — in other words, an understanding of what is right and what is wrong.

啊,这个短语用的好,道德标准,也就是对是与非的认识。

Neil:Artificial Intelligence is an interesting topic, Rob. I hope we can chat about it again in the future. But now I’m looking at the clock and we are running out of time, I’m afraid, and I’d like to know if I got the answer to the quiz question right?

人工智能是一个很有趣的话题,罗伯。我希望我们以后还有机会讨论它。但是我现在看表发现我们的时间不多了,恐怕你应该告诉我我今天问题回答的是否正确了?

Rob:Well, my question was about a supercomputer which defeated the World Chess Champion Gary Kasparov in 1997. What was the machine’s name? Was it: Red Menace, Deep Blue or Silver Surfer?

好吧,我的问题是关于1997年打败世界象棋冠军加里·卡斯帕罗夫的超级计算机的。它的名字是什么?是红色威胁、深蓝还是银色冲浪者?

Neil:And I think it’s Deep Blue.

我选的是深蓝。

Rob:Well, it sounds like you are more intelligent than a computer because you got the answer right. Yes, it was Deep Blue. The 1997 match was actually the second one between Kasparov and Deep Blue, a supercomputer designed by the company IBM and it was specialised in chess-playing.

看来你比计算机还聪明,因为你答对了。是的,它是叫深蓝。1997年的那场比赛实际上是深蓝与卡斯帕罗夫之间的第二次比赛,深蓝是IBM公司设计的一台超级电脑,是一台专门下象棋的电脑。

Neil:Well, I think I might challenge Deep Blue to a game obviously. I’m a bit of a genius myself.

我想我或许有必要向深蓝发起一次挑战。我本人在这方面有一些天赋。

Rob:Very good! Good to hear! Anyway, we’ve just got time to remember some of the words and expressions that we’ve used today, Neil.

很好!不错!但是我们剩下的时间只够复习我们今天学习的单词了,尼尔。

Neil:They were:

它们是:

you’ll need your wits about you

你需要保持头脑清醒

artificial

人工的

genius

天才

synthetic

合成的

threat

威胁

to surpass

超越

to pursue their goals

追求它们的目标

moral compass

道德准则

Rob:Thank you. Well, that's it for this programme.

谢谢。好了今天的节目到这里就结束了。

来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.tingvoa.com/html/20170430/459301.html