It is logical to suppose that things like good labour relations, good working conditions, good wages and benefits, and job security motivate workers.
But one expert, Frederick Herzberg argued that such conditions do not motivate workers. They are merely "satisfiers".
"Motivators", in contrast, include things such as having a challenging and interesting job, recognition and responsibility.
However, even with the development of computers and robotics, there are always plenty of boring, repetitive and mechanical jobs, and lots of unskilled people who have to do them.
So how do managers motivate people in such jobs?
One solution is to give them some responsibilities, not as individuals but as part of a team.
For example, some supermarkets combine office staff, the people who fill the shelves, and the people who work at the checkout into a team,
and let them decide what product lines to stock, how to display them, and so on.
Many people now talk about the importance of a company's shared values or culture, with which all the staff can identify：
for example, being the best hotel chain, or making the best, the most user-friendly or the most reliable products in a particular field.
Such values are more likely to motivate workers than financial targets, which ultimately only concern a few people.
Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of such goals to go round, and by definition, not all the competing companies in an industry can seriously claim to be the best.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 22. What can actually motivate workers according to Frederick Herzberg?
Question 23. What does the speaker say about jobs in the computer era?
Question 24. What do some supermarkets do to motivate their employees?
Question 25. Why does the speaker say financial targets are less likely to motivate workers?