The number of Muslims worldwide is estimated to be in excess of one billion, making Islam the largest faith community after Christianity. Of this number the overwhelming majority would identify themselves as Sunni2 Muslims whilst about 15 per cent follow a variety of Shiah3 Muslim persuasions. The Arabic word islam means the willing recognition of and active submission to the guiding command of the One God, Allah4. Whoever acts in this manner is called a muslim, one who acknowledges and submits to the sole , unique God. The Islamic tradition or din( a word which conveys the sense of obedience closely related to islam ) is founded upon the guiding command of Allah as contained in the Koran5 . Muslims hold the Koran to be the word of God delivered to Muhammad6, God’s elected messenger. The revelations were received in just over a twenty-year period , first in Mecca7 , the Prophet’s birthplace , and later in Medina8 where the first community was established. Both these cities are in present day Saudi Arabia and are regarded by all Muslims as the central holy places of their faith.
A Muslim must make formal prayers each day at five appointed times: at daybreak, at noon, in midafternoon, at sunset and after nightfall. The mosque is the place of public worship in Islam. If a mosque is too far away, a Muslim may pray in his own home or elsewhere on a special prayer rug or mat. He takes formal postures for each statement in the prayer, until he achieves full prostration in the direction of Mecca. Mecca is the holy city and the center of worship for Muslims. It is not only because Mecca is the birthplace of Muhammad, but also because there exist the Kaaba 9— the holiest shrine, and the Black Stone. It is believed that the Kaaba was built by Abraham and the Stone was brought out of Paradise by Adam. Every year numerous pilgrims go to Mecca to pay homage. Thus the word“Mecca”has come into English language, meaning“place one aspires to visit”
Ⅰ. Are the sestatements True or False according to the article ?
1. Shiah is the biggest sect of Islam.
2. Muhammad founded the religion of Islam and he was the messenger of Allah.
3. Every Muslim must go to mosque every day to say his prayers. )
Ⅱ. Translate the Chinese into English , using the word or phrase in paren theses :
1. 花钱切勿超过你的收入。( in excess of) 2. 他拒绝服从不公正的决定。( submit to) 3. 我们对莎士比亚的天才表示敬仰。( pay homage to)