voa慢速英语:Weather Experts to Aid Africa's 'Meningitis Belt'

发表时间:2008-11-26内容来源:VOA英语学习网

This is the VOA special english Development Report.

Bacterial meningitis must be treated with antibiotics as soon as possible or the infection can cause hearing loss and brain damage. It can also kill.


The world's largest recorded outbreak took place along Africa's so-called meningitis belt in nineteen ninety-six and 'ninety-seven. More than two hundred fifty thousand people got sick. Twenty-five thousand of them died. This area where outbreaks take place from time to time extends from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east.

Leaders of nations along the meningitis belt agreed in September to support a campaign to protect their populations with a new vaccine. The hope is to immunize two hundred fifty million people by two thousand fifteen.

The World Health Organization will provide technical aid with the new vaccine. The program will also get help from weather experts. One of the partners in the effort is the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in the American state of Colorado.

The center will make long-term weather predictions along the meningitis belt. Local health officials can then plan the best times to vaccinate people. The disease often strikes during dry, dusty weather.

One possible reason is that dust can affect the breathing system and people may be more open to infection. Another theory is that people may stay in their homes more during the dry season, making it easier to catch meningitis from others. The epidemics usually stop when the summer rainy season begins.

Weather experts will provide fourteen-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions. The weather program will start in Ghana in two thousand nine.

The center in Colorado is managed by a group known as UCAR, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR’s Community Building Program, says vaccine supplies are limited. So it is important to identify areas where the rainy season is beginning.

That way the vaccine could be given to people in the remaining dry areas -- and not given in areas where rains will stop an epidemic.

Rajul Pandya says Ghana was chosen because of good cooperation and the country's history of meningitis epidemics. He says that in the last ten years, better computers and observation methods have greatly improved the ability to predict the coming of a rainy season.

And that’s the VOA special english Development Report, written by Jerilyn Watson.

参考中文翻译:

细菌性髓膜炎必须尽快用抗生素治疗 ,否则会引发失聪,脑损坏,甚至可能致命。

世界上最大规模有记录的髓膜炎于1996年和1997年在非洲所谓的“迦纳地带”爆发。25万多人患病,其中2.5万人丧命。该地段从西部大塞内加尔共和国一直延伸到东部的埃塞俄比亚,髓膜炎经常不时爆发。

国家领导于9月份同意研发新的疫苗来保护他们的人民,希望2015年前2亿5千万人能够对髓膜炎免疫。

世界卫生组织会对新的疫苗提供技术援助。同时,该项目也会得到气象专家的帮助,其中一个搭档是美国科罗拉多州国家大气研究中心。

该中心会提供髓膜炎地带长期的天气预报。当地卫生部门会计划出为人群注射疫苗的最佳时间。该疾病通常在干燥多尘的天气爆发。

其中一个可能的原因是灰尘能够影响呼吸系统,人们更易受到感染。另外一个理论是,人们在干燥的季节可能在户内待的比较多,更易从他人感染髓膜炎。当雨季开始,该流行病就会销声匿迹。

气象专家会提供14天的大气环境预报。该天气计划将会在2009年正式启动。

科罗拉多州的研究中心由UCAR(University Corporation for Atmospheric Research,美国大学大气研究联盟)管理。UCAR社区建筑计划的负责人Rajul Pandya说疫苗提供的数量有限。所以确定出雨季已经开始的地区非常重要。

这样疫苗会注射给那些持续干燥的地区的人群,而不会该那些雨季自动消灭流行病的地区的人群。

Rajul Pandya 说由于迦纳的合作比较好,还考虑到该国的迦纳流行病历史,他们选择了该地区。他说,在过去的一年里,由于电脑技术不断提高和观察方法的改进,使得对雨季来临的预测能力得到提高。

背景资料:

髓膜炎流行或散发于世界各国,平均年发病率为2.5/10万,以非洲中部流行地带为最高。

  (一)传染源 人为本病唯一的传染源,病原菌存在于带菌者或病人的鼻咽部。在流行期间人群带菌率可高达50%,人群带菌率如超过20%时提示有发生流行的可能。非流行期的带菌菌群以B群为主,流行期间则A群所占百分比较高。病后带菌者约有10%~20%,其排菌时间可达数周至2年。带菌时间超过3个月以上者,称慢性带菌者,所带多为耐药菌株,常存在于带菌者鼻咽部深层淋巴组织内。带菌者对周围人群的危险性大于病人。

  (二)传染途径 病原菌借飞沫直接由空气传播。因病原菌在体外的生活力极弱,故通过日常用品间接传播的机会极少。密切接触对2岁以下婴儿的发病有重要意义。

  无论散发或流行,发病率均随着冬季来临而增加,一般从11月份开始上升,至2~4月份为高峰,5月起呼吸病毒感染,均有利于疾病的传播。日常用品间接传播机会较少。

  (三)人群易感性 本病在新生儿少见,2~3个月以后的婴儿即有发病者,6个月~2岁婴儿的发病率最高,以后又逐渐下降。新生儿出生时有来自母体的杀菌抗体,故很少发病,在6~24个月时抗体水平下降至最低点,以后又逐渐增高,至20岁左右达到成人水平,人群的易感性与抗体水平密切相关。各地区由于各年龄组的免疫力不同,而有发病率的差异。大城市发病分散,以2岁以下发病率最高;中小城市则以2~4岁或5~9岁的最高;在偏僻山区,一旦有传染源介入,常导致暴发流行,15岁以上发病者可占总发病率的一半以上。男女发病率大致相等。平均每隔10年左右有一次流行高峰,这是由于相隔一定时间后人群免疫力下降,新的易感者逐渐积累增加之故。近年来在流行病学上的两个主要问题,是菌群的变迁和耐磺胺药菌株的增加。

来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.tingvoa.com/html/20081126/99.html